Supported by a Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Award (1409-240099).
Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
The members of the writing committee are as follows: David R. Flum, M.D., M.P.H., Giana H. Davidson, M.D., M.P.H., Sarah E. Monsell, M.S., Nathan I. Shapiro, M.D., M.P.H., Stephen R. Odom, M.D., Sabrina E. Sanchez, M.D., M.P.H., F. Thurston Drake, M.D., M.P.H., Katherine Fischkoff, M.D., Jeffrey Johnson, M.D., Joe H. Patton, M.D., Heather Evans, M.D., Joseph Cuschieri, M.D., Amber K. Sabbatini, M.D., M.P.H., Brett A. Faine, Pharm.D., Dionne A. Skeete, M.D., Mike K. Liang, M.D., Vance Sohn, M.D., Karen McGrane, M.D., Matthew E. Kutcher, M.D., Bruce Chung, M.D., Damien W. Carter, M.D., Patricia Ayoung-Chee, M.D., M.P.H., William Chiang, M.D., Amy Rushing, M.D., Steven Steinberg, M.D., Careen S. Foster, M.D., Shaina M. Schaetzel, M.D., Thea P. Price, M.D., Katherine A. Mandell, M.D., M.P.H., Lisa Ferrigno, M.D., M.P.H., Matthew Salzberg, M.D., Daniel A. DeUgarte, M.D., Amy H. Kaji, M.D., Ph.D., Gregory J. Moran, M.D., Darin Saltzman, M.D., Ph.D., Hasan B. Alam, M.D., Pauline K. Park, M.D., Lillian S. Kao, M.D., Callie M. Thompson, M.D., Wesley H. Self, M.D., M.P.H., Julianna T. Yu, M.D., Abigail Wiebusch, M.D., Robert J. Winchell, M.D., Sunday Clark, Sc.D., M.P.H., Anusha Krishnadasan, Ph.D., Erin Fannon, B.A., Danielle C. Lavallee, Pharm.D., Ph.D., Bryan A. Comstock, M.S., Bonnie Bizzell, M.Ed., Patrick J. Heagerty, Ph.D., Larry G. Kessler, Sc.D., and David A. Talan, M.D.
The CODA Collaborative writing committee assumes responsibility for the content of this article. The views presented in this work are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, its board of governors, or its methodology committee.
This article was published on October 5, 2020, at NEJM.org.
A data sharing statement provided by the authors is available with the full text of this article at NEJM.org.
We thank Margo Godersky and Caroline Shevrin, M.S., for their outstanding efforts in coordinating the early publication of the trial results; the many surgeons, emergency department physicians, and research staff members who helped to make this trial a success; and all the trial participants for their generosity and altruism.