Facing a staggering financial crisis and a stalemate in Washington, the Metropolitan Transportation Authority threatened on Wednesday to adopt a doomsday plan if it did not receive as much as $12 billion in federal aid, including slashing subway and bus service in New York City by 40 percent.

The plan paints a bleak picture for riders: Wait times would increase by eight minutes on the subway and 15 minutes on buses; Long Island Rail Road and Metro-North trains would run at 60- or 120-minute intervals. Upgrades to the subway’s signal systems, which have been the source of many delays, would be scrapped.

The M.T.A. — which runs the city’s subway, buses and the two commuter rails — laid out the plan as part of a broader political strategy to pressure Washington to provide assistance.

The agency is facing a staggering $16.2 billion deficit through 2024, after the coronavirus pandemic wiped out its operating revenue — which comes from fares, tolls and subsidies — virtually overnight. Ridership on the subway, which plummeted by 90 percent in April, has only reached a quarter of usual levels, even as more and more New Yorkers return to work.

The state-run transit agency has requested $12 billion in aid to cover its operating losses through 2024. But after negotiations over the next stimulus package stalled earlier this month, immediate federal support did not appear to be forthcoming.

“The future of the M.T.A. and the future of the New York region lies squarely in the hands of the federal government,” the authority’s chairman, Patrick J. Foye, said on Wednesday. “Without this additional federal funding, we will be forced to take draconian measures, the impact of which will be felt across the system and the region for decades to come.”

The plan is the first detailed depiction of what the sprawling public transportation network, which acts as the backbone of the New York region’s economy, could look like in the wake of the pandemic and the current financial crisis.

Other hallmark infrastructure projects, like extending the Second Avenue Subway into Harlem and connecting commuter trains to Manhattan’s West Side at Pennsylvania Station, would be paused indefinitely. Purchasing a new fleet of electric buses and new subway cars, as well as adding elevators to stations to make them more accessible, would also be indefinitely delayed.

In addition, the agency would eliminate a widely hailed program that provides accessible vehicles on demand to paratransit customers.

In response to the proposed cuts, transit advocates reiterated their calls for federal funding, warning that riders would feel the impact of these cuts for decades.

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Updated 2020-08-26T17:58:57.078Z

“Something like this, it would fundamentally change New York,” said Nick Sifuentes, the executive director of Tri-State Transportation Campaign, an advocacy group. “It would kick off the death spiral of people using anything other than public transit, and then transit funding would never recover.”

The Transport Workers Union Local 100, which represents many M.T.A. workers, also decried the possibility of thousands of layoffs, equating slashing the work force with the agency turning its back on its own essential workers.

“Transit workers put this city and state on their backs and carried them through the deadly pandemic, risking their own health and lives,” the union’s president, Tony Utano, said in a statement. “Layoffs would be an unimaginable shameful betrayal.”

Earlier this month, the agency borrowed $451 million from the Federal Reserve, becoming only the second state government borrower to use the program. It had also suspended all new capital projects designed to upgrade the system, though it had not identified the projects it had planned to eliminate until Wednesday.

The transit agency is not planning on taking any of these drastic steps before next year, officials say. But in recent weeks, it has come under fire from financial experts and some state lawmakers for not doing more to shore up its finances.

They warn that delaying cost-saving measures deepens the agency’s budget hole, which worsens by $200 million every week, and deferring conversations about possible new revenue streams pushes off earnings from them.

This risks plunging the system into an even more dire crisis in the years to come and hobbling service just as the bulk of riders are expected to return, critics say.

“It’s possible that the cavalry is on the way, but if we already destroy one of our most important assets before there’s a changeover in government then it’s going to become a heck of a lot harder to revive it,” said Assemblyman Robert Carroll, referring to the possibility that President Trump is voted out of office in November and Democrats take control of the Senate.

“The governor and the M.T.A. seemingly think they can keep the M.T.A. on ice permanently and that it will then just wake up one day,” said Mr. Carroll, a Democrat whose district covers part of Brooklyn.

“We cannot lay all of the blame at the federal government,” he added. “We’ve got to help ourselves now.”

Adding to the urgency, many observers say it is unlikely that the authority will receive as much as $12 billion from federal authorities in the next stimulus package. The M.T.A. had originally asked the authorities for $3.9 billion in April, but now says it needs $12 billion to cover its deficit through the end of next year.

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For comparison, the American Public Transportation Association, a lobbying group, has called for a total of $32 billion in the next stimulus package for the country’s transit agencies.

Already, other transit agencies around the country have begun slashing service and furloughing their work forces to address their fledging finances and brace for a yearslong fiscal crisis.

In Denver, transit officials cut bus service by 40 percent. In San Francisco, nearly 60 percent of bus routes will be suspended for at least two years. In Seattle, there is a 15 percent service reduction scheduled come fall. And nationwide, nearly a third of public transit agencies are planning for or have already furloughed employees.

But in New York, officials have hesitated taking any cost-saving steps that would immediately affect riders.

Historically, the agency has dug its way out of past crises by acquiring new dedicated funding from the state, taking on more debt, raising fares and cutting service. But that playbook may not work to solve the current crisis.

Slashing service would lead to more packed trains, which risks contributing to the virus’s spread and discouraging riders from returning to the system. Raising fares when ridership hovers at around 25 percent of usual would yield little new revenue and burden the lower-income New Yorkers and essential workers who make up many of the current commuters.

The state and city’s own fiscal crises make finding new dedicated tax revenues particularly difficult. And taking on more debt will cut into the M.T.A.’s ability to provide service, with debt repayment already consuming nearly a quarter of the agency’s operating budget.

“The M.T.A. needs this huge helping of federal emergency aid to get through the now,” said John Kaehny, executive director of Reinvent Albany, a watchdog group. “But the future looks grim even with the federal aid. That’s the problem.”

Taking any of these severe steps would come at a high political cost to Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo, who controls the M.T.A. and has in recent years positioned himself as the lone figure capable of saving New York’s sprawling subway system.

But framing possible cuts to service and fare increases as dependent on the federal authorities may lay the groundwork to blame Washington if New York officials are forced to make unpopular decisions.

“The federal government exacerbated” this crisis, Mr. Foye, the authority chairman, said on Wednesday. “And only the federal government can come to the rescue of the M.T.A. I think it’s important we recognize that.”

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